SEC. XXIIIb.—The Northeast Coast*—The Northeast Coast is the great iron and steel district, making one-third of all the pig-iron and one-quarter of all the steel of the Kingdom. Middlesbrough is the center where the coke of Durham meets the ore from Spain, or from the Cleveland Hills, and the finished steel finds an outlet either in the shipyards along the Tees, or by water to other ports of the kingdom, or of other countries. The Cleveland beds produce 40 per cent, of all the ore raised in the island. This is smelted in the neighborhood of the mines., and out of a total of
DURHAM COAL FIELD
79 blast furnaces in operation in the Northeast in 1901 there were 43 smelting Cleveland ore. A small proportion of Cleveland iron is converted into steel, mostly by the basic Bessemer process, but almost all of the steel made in the district is from Spanish ore. The Cleveland deposit is not rich enough in either phosphorus or
*I am indebted to Mr. Arthur Cooper, Managing Director of the Northeastern Steel Works, for a careful reading of this section.